Core–shell structured Fe3O4@TiO2-doxorubicin nanoparticles for targeted chemo-sonodynamic therapy of cancer
a College of Pharmaceutical Q2 Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China 7 b Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212001, PR China 8 c College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China 9 d College of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China
A B S T R A C T 
To facilitate targeting drug delivery and combined therapy, we develop titanium dioxide-encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@TiO2 NPs). Titanium dioxide (TiO2), which is employed as a sonosensitizer for sonodynamic therapy (SDT), can also be used for the loading of doxorubicin (DOX). The fabricated Fe3O4@TiO2 NPs exhibit pH-dependent loading and release of doxorubicin (DOX) in vitro. After incubation with cancer cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated efficiently upon the irradiation of ultrasound. In the biodistribution experiments, extremely high in vivo tumor accumulation of Fe3O4@TiO2 NPs and long-time retention effect are observed. Compared with chemotherapy or sonodynamic treatment alone, the combined therapy demonstrated a synergistic effect, resulting in stronger cytotoxicity and higher therapeutic efficacy. Thus, the constructed NPs are endowed with multifunctions which allow them to selectively deliver combinatorial therapeutic payload to tumor with enhanced therapeutic effectiveness and minimal side effects.