Key Laboratory of Medicinal Resources and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Ministry of Education, National Engineering Laboratory for Resource Developing of Endangered Chinese Crude Drugs in Northwest of China, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi, China
a b s t r a c t
Sono-photodynamic therapy (SPDT) is a promising anti-cancer strategy. Briefly, SPDT combines ultrasound and light to activate sensitizers that produce mechanical, sonochemical and photochemical activities. Sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS) is a newly identified sensitizer that shows great potential in both sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study, we primarily evaluated the combined effects of SDT and PDT by using DVDMS on breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, DVDMS-SPDT elicits much serious cytotoxicity compared with either SDT or PDT alone by MTT and colony formation assays. 20,70-Dichlorodihydrofluo-rescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining revealed that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly increased in groups given combined therapy. Terephthalic acid (TA) method and FD500-uptake assay reflected that cavitational effects and cell membrane permeability changes after ultrasound irradiation were also involved in the enhancement of combination therapy. In vivo, DVDMS-SPDT markedly inhibits the tumor volume and tumor weight growth. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry analysis show DVDMS-SPDT greatly suppressed tumor proliferation. Further, DVDMS-SPDT significantly inhibits tumor lung metastasis in the highly metastatic 4T1 mouse xenograft model, which is consistent well with the in vitro findings evaluated by transwell assay. Moreover, DVDMS-SPDT did not produces obvious effect on body weight and major organs in 4T1 xenograft model. The results suggest that by combination SDT and PDT, the sensitizer DVDMS would produce much better therapeutic effects, and DVDMS-SPDT may be a potential strategy against highly metastatic breast cancer.